September 23, 1846
The planet Neptune is discovered by German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle. Its existence had been predicted the previous year by English astronomer John Couch Adams and French astronomer Urbain Le Verrier. Le Verrier would die on the 31st anniversary of Neptune’s discovery.
Little Rock Crisis
September 24, 1957
U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orders federal troops to enforce the court order allowing blacks to enter Central High School in Little Rock. Three weeks earlier, Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus had ordered the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine blacks from entering all-white Central High School, in what became known as the Little Rock Crisis. Eisenhower then federalized the Arkansas National Guard removing them from Faubus’ control and then sent in elements of the 101st Airborne Division to protect the black students. In retaliation, Faubus shut down all four Little Rock public high schools for the 1958-59 school year, in what is referred to as “The Lost Year.”
The students became known as “The Little Rock Nine,” and in 1999 were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal by U.S. President Bill Clinton.
Bill of Rights
September 25, 1789
The Bill of Rights is submitted to the states for ratification, completing ratification in 1791. It is composed of the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. They provided guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government’s power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically delegated to Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people.